The doctrine of the deity of Christ says that Jesus possesses a truly divine nature. It does not deny that he possesses a truly human nature also, with all of its attendant properties intact and unconfused (which is the corresponding doctrine of the hypostatic union or dual natures of Christ). But it affirms that he is as to his deity, in the language of the Nicene Creed, “the only Son of God, eternally begotten of the Father, God from God, Light from Light, true God from true God, begotten, not made, of one Being with the Father.” Here is a sweeping survey of the biblical support for the doctrine.
Unless otherwise indicated, all Scripture quotations are from the ESV® Bible (The Holy Bible, English Standard Version®), copyright © 2001 by Crossway, a publishing ministry of Good News Publishers. Used by permission. All rights reserved.
- Jesus bears the names and titles of deity
- Jesus partakes of the prerogatives of deity
- Jesus possesses the incommunicable attributes of deity
- Jesus is attributed with the works of deity
- Jesus claimed deity
- Significance of the doctrine
Jesus bears the names and titles of deity
There is only one God.
- Deuteronomy 6:4 - “Hear, O Israel: The Lord our God, the Lord is one.
- Deuteronomy 4:35 - To you it was shown, that you might know that the Lord is God; there is no other besides him.
- Isaiah 43:10 - “You are my witnesses,” declares the Lord, “and my servant whom I have chosen, that you may know and believe me and understand that I am he. Before me no god was formed, nor shall there be any after me.
- etc., etc., etc.
Yet Jesus is called God.
- John 1:1 - In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.
- John 1:18 - No one has ever seen God; the only God, who is at the Father’s side, he has made him known.
- Titus 2:13 - waiting for our blessed hope, the appearing of the glory of our great God and Savior Jesus Christ1
- 2 Peter 1:1 - Simeon Peter, a servant and apostle of Jesus Christ, To those who have obtained a faith of equal standing with ours by the righteousness of our God and Savior Jesus Christ1
- Isaiah 9:6 - For to us a child is born, to us a son is given; and the government shall be upon his shoulder, and his name shall be called Wonderful Counselor, Mighty God, Everlasting Father, Prince of Peace.
- Romans 9:5 - To them belong the patriarchs, and from their race, according to the flesh, is the Christ, who is God over all, blessed forever. Amen.
- Hebrews 1:8 - But of the Son he says, “Your throne, O God, is forever and ever, the scepter of uprightness is the scepter of your kingdom.
- John 20:28-29 - Thomas answered him, “My Lord and my God!” Jesus said to him, “Have you believed because you have seen me? Blessed are those who have not seen and yet have believed.”
- c.f. Matthew 1:21-23
The New Testament cites numerous Old Testament passages about Jehovah and refers them to Jesus.
Hebrews 1:8-12 - But of the Son he says, “Your throne, O God, is forever and ever, the scepter of uprightness is the scepter of your kingdom. You have loved righteousness and hated wickedness; therefore God, your God, has anointed you with the oil of gladness beyond your companions.” And, “You, Lord, laid the foundation of the earth in the beginning, and the heavens are the work of your hands; they will perish, but you remain; they will all wear out like a garment, like a robe you will roll them up, like a garment they will be changed. But you are the same, and your years will have no end.”
Psalm 102:25-27 - [Hear my prayer, O Lord [Jehovah]] Of old you laid the foundation of the earth, and the heavens are the work of your hands. They will perish, but you will remain; they will all wear out like a garment. You will change them like a robe, and they will pass away, but you are the same, and your years have no end.
John 12:36-41 - When Jesus had said these things, he departed and hid himself from them. Though he had done so many signs before them, they still did not believe in him, so that the word spoken by the prophet Isaiah might be fulfilled: “Lord, who has believed what he heard from us, and to whom has the arm of the Lord been revealed?” Therefore they could not believe. For again Isaiah said, “He has blinded their eyes and hardened their heart, lest they see with their eyes, and understand with their heart, and turn, and I would heal them.” Isaiah said these things because he saw his glory and spoke of him.
Isaiah 6:1-10 - In the year that King Uzziah died I saw the Lord sitting upon a throne, high and lifted up; and the train of his robe filled the temple. Above him stood the seraphim. Each had six wings: with two he covered his face, and with two he covered his feet, and with two he flew. And one called to another and said: “Holy, holy, holy is the Lord [Jehovah] of hosts; the whole earth is full of his glory!” And the foundations of the thresholds shook at the voice of him who called, and the house was filled with smoke. And I said: “Woe is me! For I am lost; for I am a man of unclean lips, and I dwell in the midst of a people of unclean lips; for my eyes have seen the King, the Lord [Jehovah] of hosts!” Then one of the seraphim flew to me, having in his hand a burning coal that he had taken with tongs from the altar. And he touched my mouth and said: “Behold, this has touched your lips; your guilt is taken away, and your sin atoned for.” And I heard the voice of the Lord saying, “Whom shall I send, and who will go for us?” Then I said, “Here I am! Send me.” And he said, “Go, and say to this people: “‘Keep on hearing, but do not understand; keep on seeing, but do not perceive.’ Make the heart of this people dull, and their ears heavy, and blind their eyes; lest they see with their eyes, and hear with their ears, and understand with their hearts, and turn and be healed.”
Ephesians 4:7-8 - But grace was given to each one of us according to the measure of Christ’s gift. Therefore it says, “When he ascended on high he led a host of captives, and he gave gifts to men.”
Psalm 68:18 - You ascended on high, leading a host of captives in your train and receiving gifts among men, even among the rebellious, that the Lord God may dwell there.
1 Peter 2:4-8 - As you come to him, a living stone rejected by men but in the sight of God chosen and precious, you yourselves like living stones are being built up as a spiritual house, to be a holy priesthood, to offer spiritual sacrifices acceptable to God through Jesus Christ. For it stands in Scripture: “Behold, I am laying in Zion a stone, a cornerstone chosen and precious, and whoever believes in him will not be put to shame.” So the honor is for you who believe, but for those who do not believe, “The stone that the builders rejected has become the cornerstone,” and “A stone of stumbling, and a rock of offense.” (c.f. Luke 2:34)
Isaiah 8:13-14 - But the Lord [Jehovah] of hosts, him you shall honor as holy. Let him be your fear, and let him be your dread. And he will become a sanctuary and a stone of offense and a rock of stumbling to both houses of Israel, a trap and a snare to the inhabitants of Jerusalem.
Romans 10:9-13 - because, if you confess with your mouth that Jesus is Lord and believe in your heart that God raised him from the dead, you will be saved. For with the heart one believes and is justified, and with the mouth one confesses and is saved. For the Scripture says, “Everyone who believes in him will not be put to shame.” For there is no distinction between Jew and Greek; for the same Lord is Lord of all, bestowing his riches on all who call on him. For “everyone who calls on the name of the Lord will be saved.” (c.f. Romans 9:33)
Joel 2:32 - And it shall come to pass that everyone who calls on the name of the Lord [Jehovah] shall be saved.
Revelation 1:7 - Behold, he is coming with the clouds, and every eye will see him, even those who pierced him, and all tribes of the earth will wail on account of him. Even so. Amen.
Zechariah 12:1,10 - The oracle of the word of the Lord concerning Israel: Thus declares the Lord [Jehovah]… “And I will pour out on the house of David and the inhabitants of Jerusalem a spirit of grace and pleas for mercy, so that, when they look on me, on him whom they have pierced, they shall mourn for him, as one mourns for an only child, and weep bitterly over him, as one weeps over a firstborn.
Mark 1:1-3 - The beginning of the gospel of Jesus Christ, the Son of God. As it is written in Isaiah the prophet, “Behold, I send my messenger before your face, who will prepare your way, the voice of one crying in the wilderness: ‘Prepare the way of the Lord, make his paths straight,’” (c.f. Matthew 3:3; Luke 3:4; John 1:23)
Isaiah 40:3 - A voice cries: “In the wilderness prepare the way of the Lord [Jehovah]; make straight in the desert a highway for our God.
Matthew 11:10 - As they went away, Jesus began to speak to the crowds concerning John: “What did you go out into the wilderness to see? … A prophet? Yes, I tell you, and more than a prophet. This is he of whom it is written, “‘Behold, I send my messenger before your face, who will prepare your way before you.’”
Malachi 3:1 - “Behold, I send my messenger, and he will prepare the way before me. And the Lord whom you seek will suddenly come to his temple; and the messenger of the covenant in whom you delight, behold, he is coming, says the Lord [Jehovah] of hosts.”
1 Corinthians 10:9 - We must not put Christ to the test, as some of them did and were destroyed by serpents.
Numbers 21:5-6 - And the people spoke against God and against Moses, “Why have you brought us up out of Egypt to die in the wilderness? For there is no food and no water, and we loathe this worthless food.” Then the Lord sent fiery serpents among the people, and they bit the people, so that many people of Israel died.
Luke 4:16-21 - And he [Jesus] came to Nazareth, where he had been brought up. And as was his custom, he went to the synagogue on the Sabbath day, and he stood up to read. And the scroll of the prophet Isaiah was given to him. He unrolled the scroll and found the place where it was written, “The Spirit of the Lord is upon me, because he has anointed me to proclaim good news to the poor. He has sent me to proclaim liberty to the captives and recovering of sight to the blind, to set at liberty those who are oppressed, to proclaim the year of the Lord’s favor.” And he rolled up the scroll and gave it back to the attendant and sat down. And the eyes of all in the synagogue were fixed on him. And he began to say to them, “Today this Scripture has been fulfilled in your hearing.”
Isaiah 61 - The Spirit of the Lord God is upon me, because the Lord has anointed me to bring good news to the poor; he has sent me to bind up the brokenhearted, to proclaim liberty to the captives, and the opening of the prison to those who are bound; to proclaim the year of the Lord’s favor… For I the Lord [Jehovah] love justice; I hate robbery and wrong; I will faithfully give them their recompense, and I will make an everlasting covenant with them. [This passage is too lengthy to include in its entirety. The diligent Bible student will readily discern that the speaker in the entire chapter is Jehovah, himself.]
c.f. Romans 14:11 of Isaiah 45:22-23, 1 Corinthians 1:30-31 of Jeremiah 9:24, and 1 Peter 2:3 of Psalm 34:8, 2 Peter 3:8 of Psalm 90:4
“I am” is the covenant name of God, highlighting his timeless self-existence.
- Exodus 3:14-15 - God said to Moses, “I am who I am.” And he said, “Say this to the people of Israel, ‘I am has sent me to you.’“ God also said to Moses, “Say this to the people of Israel, ‘The Lord, the God of your fathers, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob, has sent me to you.’ This is my name forever, and thus I am to be remembered throughout all generations.
Yet Jesus identified himself as “I am”.
- John 8:24 - I told you that you would die in your sins, for unless you believe that I am
he2 you will die in your sins.”
- John 8:28 - So Jesus said to them, “When you have lifted up the Son of Man, then you will know that I am
he2, and that I do nothing on my own authority, but speak just as the Father taught me.
- John 13:19 - I am telling you this now, before it takes place, that when it does take place you may believe that I am
- John 18:5-6 - They answered him, “Jesus of Nazareth.” Jesus said to them, “I am
he2.” Judas, who betrayed him, was standing with them. When Jesus said to them, “I am he2,” they drew back and fell to the ground.
- John 8:58-59 - Jesus said to them, “Truly, truly, I say to you, before Abraham was, I am.” So they picked up stones to throw at him, but Jesus hid himself and went out of the temple.
The Alpha and the Omega
The Alpha and the Omega, the First and the Last is peculiarly the name of God, highlighting His eternal being.
- Revelation 1:8 - “I am the Alpha and the Omega,” says the Lord God, “who is and who was and who is to come, the Almighty.”
- Isaiah 44:6 - Thus says the Lord, the King of Israel and his Redeemer, the Lord of hosts: “I am the first and I am the last; besides me there is no god.
Yet Jesus takes the name “the Alpha and the Omega”.
- Revelation 1:17-18 - When I saw him, I fell at his feet as though dead. But he laid his right hand on me, saying, “Fear not, I am the first and the last, and the living one. I died, and behold I am alive forevermore, and I have the keys of Death and Hades.
- Revelation 2:8 - “And to the angel of the church in Smyrna write: ‘The words of the first and the last, who died and came to life.
- Revelation 22:12-13 - “Behold, I am coming soon, bringing my recompense with me, to repay each one for what he has done. I am the Alpha and the Omega, the first and the last, the beginning and the end.”
King of kings and Lord of Lords
God is the King of kings and Lord of lords.
- Deuteronomy 10:17 - For the Lord your God is God of gods and Lord of lords, the great, the mighty, and the awesome God, who is not partial and takes no bribe.
- Psalm 136:1-3 - Give thanks to the Lord, for he is good, for his steadfast love endures forever. Give thanks to the God of gods, for his steadfast love endures forever. Give thanks to the Lord of lords, for his steadfast love endures forever;
- 1 Timothy 6:13-15 - I charge you in the presence of God, who gives life to all things, and of Christ Jesus, who in his testimony before Pontius Pilate made the good confession, to keep the commandment unstained and free from reproach until the appearing of our Lord Jesus Christ, which he will display at the proper time—he who is the blessed and only Sovereign, the King of kings and Lord of lords, who alone has immortality, who dwells in unapproachable light, whom no one has ever seen or can see. To him be honor and eternal dominion. Amen.
Yet Jesus is called the King of kings and Lord of lords.
- Revelation 17:14 - They will make war on the Lamb, and the Lamb will conquer them, for he is Lord of lords and King of kings,
- Revelation 19:11-16 - Then I saw heaven opened, and behold, a white horse! The one sitting on it is called Faithful and True, and in righteousness he judges and makes war. His eyes are like a flame of fire, and on his head are many diadems, and he has a name written that no one knows but himself. He is clothed in a robe dipped in blood, and the name by which he is called is The Word of God. And the armies of heaven, arrayed in fine linen, white and pure, were following him on white horses. From his mouth comes a sharp sword with which to strike down the nations, and he will rule them with a rod of iron. He will tread the winepress of the fury of the wrath of God the Almighty. On his robe and on his thigh he has a name written, King of kings and Lord of lords.
While the Bible recognizes occasional national “saviors” raised up to deliver Israel from earthly oppressors, God declares that He is the only Savior of His people in the ultimate and religious sense.
- Isaiah 43:11 - I, I am the Lord [Jehovah], and besides me there is no savior.
- Isaiah 49:26 - Then all flesh shall know that I am the Lord [Jehovah] your Savior, and your Redeemer, the Mighty One of Jacob.
- Hosea 13:4 - But I am the Lord [Jehovah] your God from the land of Egypt; you know no God but me, and besides me there is no savior.
Yet Jesus is designated the Savior, not occasionally but officially, not nationally but spiritually, and not temporally but eternally.
- Luke 2:11 - For unto you is born this day in the city of David a Savior, who is Christ the Lord.
- John 4:42 - They said to the woman, “It is no longer because of what you said that we believe, for we have heard for ourselves, and we know that this is indeed the Savior of the world.”
- Acts 5:31 - God exalted him at his right hand as Leader and Savior, to give repentance to Israel and forgiveness of sins.
- Ephesians 5:23 - For the husband is the head of the wife even as Christ is the head of the church, his body, and is himself its Savior.
- 2 Timothy 1:10 - and which now has been manifested through the appearing of our Savior Christ Jesus, who abolished death and brought life and immortality to light through the gospel
- Titus 1:4 - Grace and peace from God the Father and Christ Jesus our Savior.
- Titus 3:5-6 - he saved us, not because of works done by us in righteousness, but according to his own mercy, by the washing of regeneration and renewal of the Holy Spirit, whom he poured out on us richly through Jesus Christ our Savior
- 2 Peter 1:11 - For in this way there will be richly provided for you an entrance into the eternal kingdom of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ.
- 2 Peter 2:20 - For if, after they have escaped the defilements of the world through the knowledge of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ, they are again entangled in them and overcome, the last state has become worse for them than the first.
- 2 Peter 3:18 - But grow in the grace and knowledge of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ. To him be the glory both now and to the day of eternity. Amen.
- 1 John 4:14 - And we have seen and testify that the Father has sent his Son to be the Savior of the world.
- Titus 2:13 - waiting for our blessed hope, the appearing of the glory of our great God and Savior Jesus Christ
- 2 Peter 1:1 - To those who have obtained a faith of equal standing with ours by the righteousness of our God and Savior Jesus Christ
- c.f. Matthew 1:21, Acts 13:23, Philippians 3:20, etc.
God declares Himself to be the husband and bridegrom of God’s people.
- Isaiah 54:5 - For your husband is your Maker, Whose name is the Lord of hosts; And your Redeemer is the Holy One of Israel, Who is called the God of all the earth.
- Jeremiah 31:32 - not like the covenant which I made with their fathers in the day I took them by the hand to bring them out of the land of Egypt, My covenant which they broke, although I was a husband to them,” declares the Lord.
- Jeremiah 31:3-4, 33 - The Lord says… Israel, my bride, I will rebuild you… “I was a husband to them,” declares the Lord
- c.f. Isaiah 62:4-5, Jeremiah 2:2, Ezekiel 16:8-14, Hosea 2:7
Yet Jesus the News Testament clearly understands Jesus to be the bridegroom.
- 2 Corinthians 11:2 - for I betrothed you to one husband, so that to Christ I might present you as a pure virgin.
- Revelation 19:7-9 - the marriage of the Lamb has come and His bride has made herself ready… Blessed are those who are invited to the marriage supper of the Lamb.
Jesus partakes of the prerogatives of deity
He shares God’s glory
God declares that He shares His glory with no one else.
- Isaiah 42:8,11 - I am the Lord; that is my name; my glory I give to no other, nor my praise to carved idols. For my own sake, for my own sake, I do it, for how should my name be profaned? My glory I will not give to another.
Yet Jesus shares the Father’s glory.
- John 17:5 - And now, Father, glorify me in your own presence with the glory that I had with you before the world existed.
- c.f. John 17:24, 2 Peter 3:18
He receives religious worship
Scripture is clear that God alone is to be worshipped. Elect angels and holy men reject worship when rendered to them.
- Exodus 34:14 - you shall worship no other god, for the Lord, whose name is Jealous, is a jealous God
- Matthew 4:10 - Then Jesus said to him, “Be gone, Satan! For it is written, “‘You shall worship [proskuneo] the Lord your God and him only shall you serve.’”
- Acts 10:25-26 - When Peter entered, Cornelius met him and fell down at his feet and worshiped [proskuneo] him. But Peter lifted him up, saying, “Stand up; I too am a man.”
- Revelation 19:10 - Then I fell down at his feet to worship [proskuneo] him, but he said to me, “You must not do that! I am a fellow servant with you and your brothers who hold to the testimony of Jesus. Worship [proskuneo] God.”
- Revelation 22:8-9 - I fell down to worship [proskuneo] at the feet of the angel who showed them to me, but he said to me, “You must not do that! I am a fellow servant with you and your brothers the prophets, and with those who keep the words of this book. Worship [proskuneo] God.”
Yet Jesus accepts worship.
- Matthew 2:2 - “Where is he who has been born king of the Jews? For we saw his star when it rose and have come to worship him.”
- Matthew 2:11 - And going into the house they saw the child with Mary his mother, and they fell down and worshiped him.
- Matthew 14:31-33 - Jesus immediately reached out his hand and took hold of him, saying to him, “O you of little faith, why did you doubt?” And when they got into the boat, the wind ceased. And those in the boat worshiped him, saying, “Truly you are the Son of God.”
- Matthew 28:9 - And behold, Jesus met them and said, “Greetings!” And they came up and took hold of his feet and worshiped him.
- Matthew 28:16-17 - Now the eleven disciples went to Galilee, to the mountain to which Jesus had directed them. And when they saw him they worshiped him, but some doubted.
- John 9:35-38 - Jesus heard that they had cast him out, and having found him he said, “Do you believe in the Son of Man?” He answered, “And who is he, sir, that I may believe in him?” Jesus said to him, “You have seen him, and it is he who is speaking to you.” He said, “Lord, I believe,” and he worshiped him.
- Hebrews 1:6 - And again, when he brings the firstborn into the world, he says, “Let all God’s angels worship him.”
- Revelation 5:11-14 - Then I looked, and I heard around the throne and the living creatures and the elders the voice of many angels, numbering myriads of myriads and thousands of thousands, saying with a loud voice, “Worthy is the Lamb who was slain, to receive power and wealth and wisdom and might and honor and glory and blessing!” And I heard every creature in heaven and on earth and under the earth and in the sea, and all that is in them, saying, “To him who sits on the throne and to the Lamb be blessing and honor and glory and might forever and ever!” And the four living creatures said, “Amen!” and the elders fell down and worshiped.
He receives sacred service
- Daniel 7:13-14 - “I saw in the night visions, and behold, with the clouds of heaven there came one like a son of man, and he came to the Ancient of Days and was presented before him. And to him was given dominion and glory and a kingdom, that all peoples, nations, and languages should serve [latreuo, LXX] him; his dominion is an everlasting dominion, which shall not pass away, and his kingdom one that shall not be destroyed.
- Psalm 2:11-12 - Serve the Lord [Jehovah] with fear, and rejoice with trembling. Kiss the Son, lest he be angry, and you perish in the way, for his wrath is quickly kindled. Blessed are all who take refuge in him.
- Revelation 22:1-3 - Then the angel showed me the river of the water of life, bright as crystal, flowing from the throne of God and of the Lamb through the middle of the street of the city; also, on either side of the river, the tree of life with its twelve kinds of fruit, yielding its fruit each month. The leaves of the tree were for the healing of the nations. No longer will there be anything accursed, but the throne of God and of the Lamb will be in it, and his servants will worship [latreuo] him.
He is prayed to and invocated
- John 14:13-14 - Whatever you ask in my name, this I will do, that the Father may be glorified in the Son. If you ask me anything in my name, I will do it.
- Acts 1:24-25 - And they prayed and said, “You, Lord, who know the hearts of all, show which one of these two you have chosen to take the place in this ministry and apostleship from which Judas turned aside to go to his own place.”
- Acts 7:59-60 - And as they were stoning Stephen, he called out, “Lord Jesus, receive my spirit.” And falling to his knees he cried out with a loud voice, “Lord, do not hold this sin against them.” And when he had said this, he fell asleep.
- 2 Corinthians 12:8-9 - Three times I pleaded with the Lord about this, that it should leave me. But he said to me, “My grace is sufficient for you, for my power is made perfect in weakness.” Therefore I will boast all the more gladly of my weaknesses, so that the power of Christ may rest upon me.
- Acts 9:13-14 - But Ananias answered, “Lord, I have heard from many about this man, how much evil he has done to your saints at Jerusalem. And here he has authority from the chief priests to bind all who call on your name.”
- Acts 22:16 - And now why do you wait? Rise and be baptized and wash away your sins, calling on his name.
- Romans 10:12-14 - For there is no distinction between Jew and Greek; for the same Lord is Lord of all, bestowing his riches on all who call on him. For “everyone who calls on the name of the Lord will be saved.” How then will they call on him in whom they have not believed? And how are they to believe in him of whom they have never heard? And how are they to hear without someone preaching?
- 1 Corinthians 1:2 - To the church of God that is in Corinth, to those sanctified in Christ Jesus, called to be saints together with all those who in every place call upon the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, both their Lord and ours:
- c.f. 1 Corinthians 16:22, Revelation 22:20
He is believed on and followed
- John 3:36 - Whoever believes in the Son has eternal life; whoever does not obey the Son shall not see life, but the wrath of God remains on him.
- John 11:25 - Jesus said to her, “I am the resurrection and the life. Whoever believes in me, though he die, yet shall he live,
- Acts 16:31 - And they said, “Believe in the Lord Jesus, and you will be saved, you and your household.”
- John 14:1 - “Let not your hearts be troubled. Believe in God; believe also in me.
- c.f. John 10:27
He forgives sins
- Mark 2:5-7 - And when Jesus saw their faith, he said to the paralytic, “Son, your sins are forgiven.” Now some of the scribes were sitting there, questioning in their hearts, “Why does this man speak like that? He is blaspheming! Who can forgive sins but God alone?”
- Luke 5:22-25 - When Jesus perceived their thoughts, he answered them, “Why do you question in your hearts? Which is easier, to say, ‘Your sins are forgiven you,’ or to say, ‘Rise and walk’? But that you may know that the Son of Man has authority on earth to forgive sins“—he said to the man who was paralyzed—”I say to you, rise, pick up your bed and go home.” And immediately he rose up before them and picked up what he had been lying on and went home, glorifying God.
Jesus possesses the incommunicable attributes of deity
Independence (aka aseity or self-existence)
- John 5:26 - For as the Father has life in himself, so he has granted the Son also to have life in himself.
- c.f. I Am.
Unchangeableness (aka immutability)
- Hebrews 13:8 - Jesus Christ is the same yesterday and today and forever.
- Hebrews 1:12 - like a robe you will roll them up, like a garment they will be changed. But you are the same, and your years will have no end.”
Eternity or eternality
- Micah 5:2 - But you, O Bethlehem Ephrathah, who are too little to be among the clans of Judah, from you shall come forth for me one who is to be ruler in Israel, whose coming forth is from of old, from ancient days.
- Isaiah 9:6 - For to us a child is born, to us a son is given; and the government shall be upon his shoulder, and his name shall be called Wonderful Counselor, Mighty God, Everlasting Father, Prince of Peace.
- John 1:1-2 - In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. He was in the beginning with God.
- Hebrews 7:3 - He is without father or mother or genealogy, having neither beginning of days nor end of life, but resembling the Son of God he continues a priest forever.
- c.f. The Alpha and the Omega
et al (fullness of deity)
- Colossians 1:15 - He is the image of the invisible God, the firstborn of all creation.
- 2 Corinthians 4:4 - In their case the god of this world has blinded the minds of the unbelievers, to keep them from seeing the light of the gospel of the glory of Christ, who is the image of God.
- Colossians 2:9-10 - For in him [Christ] the whole fullness of deity dwells bodily, and you have been filled in him, who is the head of all rule and authority.
- Hebrews 1:2-3 - but in these last days he has spoken to us by his Son, whom he appointed the heir of all things, through whom also he created the world. He is the radiance of the glory of God and the exact imprint of his nature, and he upholds the universe by the word of his power.
Jesus is attributed with the works of deity
God specifically disclaims any help or agency in creation outside himself.
- Isaiah 44:24 - Thus says the Lord, your Redeemer, who formed you from the womb: “I am the Lord, who made all things, who alone stretched out the heavens, who spread out the earth by myself,
- c.f. Job 9:8, Isaiah 45:18, 54:5
And yet Jesus is repeatedly attributed with the work of creation.
- John 1:3 - All things were made through him, and without him was not any thing made that was made.
- John 1:10 - He was in the world, and the world was made through him, yet the world did not know him.
- 1 Corinthians 8:6 - Jesus Christ, through whom are all things and through whom we exist.
- Hebrews 1:2 - but in these last days he has spoken to us by his Son, whom he appointed the heir of all things, through whom also he created the world.
- Hebrews 3:3-4 - For Jesus has been counted worthy of more glory than Moses—as much more glory as the builder of a house has more honor than the house itself. (For every house is built by someone, but the builder of all things is God.)
Scripture teaches that God will execute final judgment.
- Romans 14:10 - For we will all stand before the judgment seat of God
Yet the Son, not the Father, will judge.
- 2 Corinthians 5:10 - For we must all appear before the judgment seat of Christ
- John 5:22 - The Father judges no one, but has given all judgment to the Son
Whatever the Father does
- John 5:19 - So Jesus said to them, “Truly, truly, I say to you, the Son can do nothing of his own accord, but only what he sees the Father doing. For whatever the Father does, that the Son does likewise.
Jesus claimed deity
One with the Father
- John 10:30-38 - [Jesus answered them] I and the Father are one.” The Jews picked up stones again to stone him. Jesus answered them, “I have shown you many good works from the Father; for which of them are you going to stone me?” The Jews answered him, “It is not for a good work that we are going to stone you but for blasphemy, because you, being a man, make yourself God.” Jesus answered them, “Is it not written in your Law, ‘I said, you are gods’? If he called them gods to whom the word of God came—and Scripture cannot be broken—do you say of him whom the Father consecrated and sent into the world, ‘You are blaspheming,’ because I said, ‘I am the Son of God’? If I am not doing the works of my Father, then do not believe me; but if I do them, even though you do not believe me, believe the works, that you may know and understand that the Father is in me and I am in the Father.”
- John 14:9-11 - Jesus said to him, “Have I been with you so long, and you still do not know me, Philip? Whoever has seen me has seen the Father. How can you say, ‘Show us the Father’? Do you not believe that I am in the Father and the Father is in me? The words that I say to you I do not speak on my own authority, but the Father who dwells in me does his works. Believe me that I am in the Father and the Father is in me, or else believe on account of the works themselves.
- c.f. John 17:11,22
- Luke 18:18-19 - And a ruler asked him, “Good Teacher, what must I do to inherit eternal life?” And Jesus said to him, “Why do you call me good? No one is good except God alone. (c.f. Mark 10:17-18)
Significance of the doctrine
- 1 John 4:1-3 - Beloved, do not believe every spirit, but test the spirits to see whether they are from God, for many false prophets have gone out into the world. By this you know the Spirit of God: every spirit that confesses that Jesus Christ has come in the flesh is from God, and every spirit that does not confess Jesus is not from God. This is the spirit of the antichrist, which you heard was coming and now is in the world already.
- John 8:24 - I told you that you would die in your sins, for unless you believe that I am
he2 you will die in your sins.”
c.f. Granville Sharp’s Rule of Greek exegesis, which states that when two nouns which are not proper nouns are connected by the word kai (and), if the article ho (the) precedes the first but not the second, they refer to the same person. ↩ ↩2
The word “he” is not present in the original language. Its addition in our English translations makes the text read more naturally to us but obscures the Old Testament reference that Jesus’s contemporaries apparently recognized. ↩ ↩2 ↩3 ↩4 ↩5 ↩6